Make your own free website on

Formulae required according to the

Nuffield Advanced Level Physics Syllabus

Those with bullet points are not given on the Nuffield Formulae Sheet

A Materials and Mechanics

Kinetic energy

E = mv2

Energy transferred (work)

W = mgDh

Elastic strain energy

E = kx2

Energy transferred (work)

W = Fxd

Rate of transfer (power)

P = Fxv

[if F and v are constant]


i = FDt

[note: momentum is a vector quantity]

Force as the rate of change of momentum

F = Dmv/t


F = ma

[for constant mass]

Ideal gas (macroscopic)

pV = nRT

[note: n is number of moles]

Pressure in terms of density of gas

p = 1/3 nrv2

Ideal gas (microscopic)

pV = 1/3 Nmv2

[(v2 is mean of squares of velocities) assuming: elastic collisions, perfectly random distribution, no interactions between particles, particles take up negligible volume (only applies at low pressures)]

B Currents, circuits and charge

Current as a rate of flow of charge

I = dQ/dt

Current in a material

I = vAne

* Resistance

R = V/I

* Power

P = VI = I2R = V2/R

* Work

W = VQ

* Resistance

R = r(l / A)

Load voltage causing internal resistance

Vload = e - Ir

* Charge in a capacitor

C = Q/V

* Energy stored in a capacitor

E = QV = CV2

* Time constant of a capacitor

RC = Q/I

* Charge on a discharging capacitor

DQ/Q = -Dt/RC

* The electron volt

eV = mv2

D Oscillations and waves

* Speed of light

c = fl

* Speed of transverse wave

c = (T/m)

[T=tension in string, m=mass per unit length]

* Velocity

v = Ds/Dt

* Accelleration

a = Dv/Dt

Accelleration in SHM

[derived from F = -ks and a = F/m]

a = -(k/m)s

[k = force per unit displacement]

Displacement in SHM

s = Acos wt

[by numerical solution of a = -(k/m)s and by experiment]

* Energy of oscillator

Etotal = Ep + Ek

[Ep = Potential Energy, Ek = KE]

E Field and potential

* Electric field strength

E = F/Q

[Q is a unit of positive charge]

* Electric field strength

E = V/d

Field strength in terms of potential gradient

E = -DV/Dx

Charge density near charged surface

s = e0E


C = e0A/d

* Gravitational field strength

g = -GM/r2

* Gravitational force of attraction

Fg = -Gm1m2/r2

* Centripetal force on a satellite

F = mv2/r

* Electric force of attraction

Fe = kQ1Q2/r2

[k = 1/4pe0]

F Radioactivity and the nuclear atom

Activity in terms of the decay constant

DN/dt = -lN

Radioactive decay

N = N0e-lt

Nuclear binding energy

DE = c2Dm

H Magnetic fields and a.c.

Flux density

B = F/Il

Force on a moving charge

F = BQv

J Electromagnetic waves

Minima through an aperture

Nl = b sinq

* Intensity

intensity (amplitude)2

Maxima through a diffraction grating

Nl = s sinq

L Waves, particles and atoms

* Energy of a photon

E = hf

* Probability of a photon arriving

probability (amplitude)2

* Radiation emitted from hydrogen atom

Hf = E1 - E2

* Wavelength of photon in terms of momentum

l = h/mv

M Thermal Physics

Energy change

DH = mcDT

First law of thermodynamics

DU = DQ + DW