Those with bullet points are not given
on the Nuffield Formulae Sheet
Kinetic energy^{} 
E = ½mv^{2} 
Energy transferred (work) 
W
= mgDh 
Elastic strain energy^{} 
E = ½kx^{2} 
Energy transferred (work) 
W =
Fxd 
Rate
of transfer (power) 
P
= Fxv [if F and
v are constant] 
Impulse 
i =
FDt [note:
momentum is a vector quantity] 
Force as the rate of change of
momentum 
F = Dmv/t 
Force 
F =
ma [for
constant mass] 
Ideal gas (macroscopic) 
pV = nRT [note: n
is number of moles] 
Pressure
in terms of density of gas 
p = ^{1}/_{3}
nrv^{2} 
Ideal gas
(microscopic) 
pV = ^{1}/_{3}
Nmv^{2} 
[(v^{2} is mean of
squares of velocities) assuming: elastic collisions, perfectly
random distribution, no interactions between particles, particles take up
negligible volume (only applies at low pressures)] 
Current as a rate of flow of
charge 
I =
dQ/dt 
Current
in a material 
I =
vAne 
Resistance 
R = V/I 
Power 
P = VI
= I^{2}R = V^{2}/R 
Work 
W = VQ 
Resistance 
R = r(l / A) 
Load
voltage causing internal resistance 
V_{load}
= e  Ir 
Charge in a capacitor 
C = Q/V 
Energy stored in a capacitor 
E = ½QV = ½CV^{2} 
Time constant of a capacitor 
RC = Q/I 
Charge on a discharging capacitor

DQ/Q = Dt/RC 
The electron volt 
eV = ½mv^{2} 
Speed of light 
c = fl 
Speed of transverse
wave 
c = Ö(T/m) [T=tension in
string, m=mass per unit length] 
Velocity 
v = Ds/Dt 
Accelleration 
a = Dv/Dt 
Accelleration in SHM [derived
from F = ks and a = F/m] 
a = (k/m)s [k = force
per unit displacement] 
Displacement in SHM 
s = Acos wt 
[by
numerical solution of a = (k/m)s and by experiment] 

Energy of oscillator 
E_{total} = E_{p} + E_{k} [E_{p}
= Potential Energy, E_{k} = KE] 
Electric field strength 
E
= F/Q [Q is a unit of positive
charge] 
Electric field strength 
E =
V/d 
Field
strength in terms of potential gradient 
E = DV/Dx 
Charge
density near charged surface 
s = e_{0}E 
Capacitance 
C = e_{0}A/d 
Gravitational field strength 
g =
GM/r^{2} 
Gravitational force of
attraction 
F_{g}
= Gm_{1}m_{2}/r^{2} 
Centripetal force on a
satellite 
F
= mv^{2}/r 
Electric force of attraction 
F_{e}
= kQ_{1}Q_{2}/r^{2} [k
= 1/4pe_{0}] 
Activity in terms of the
decay constant 
DN/dt
= lN 
Radioactive
decay 
N
= N_{0}e^{}^{l}^{t} 
Nuclear binding energy 
DE = c^{2}Dm 
Flux density 
B
= F/Il 
Force on a moving charge 
F
= BQv 
Minima through an aperture 
Nl = b sinq 
Intensity 
intensity
µ (amplitude)^{2} 
Maxima through a
diffraction grating 
Nl =
s sinq 
Energy of a photon 
E
= hf 
Probability of a photon
arriving 
probability
µ (amplitude)^{2} 
Radiation emitted from
hydrogen atom 
Hf =
E_{1 } E_{2} 
Wavelength of photon in terms
of momentum 
l =
h/mv 
Energy change 
DH = mcDT 
First law of
thermodynamics 
DU = DQ + DW 